老藥新用

生活科學趣談

醫界曙光 經痛藥可治癒阿茲海默症 – 台灣主流觀點發布於2016年8月14日

標題中的”治癒”一詞不妥,應該改為”治療”,因為阿茲海默症是一種退行性的不可逆疾病。原研究論文在此→《Mefenamic Acid Shows Neuroprotective Effects and Improves Cognitive Impairment in in Vitro and in Vivo Alzheimer’s Disease Models》,內容提及:

1. 非類固醇消炎藥 NSAID 具有消炎、止痛、解熱等功效(可參考先前這篇《阿斯匹靈》), 經痛藥中的甲芬那酸能降低自由基一氧化氮”decreases the production of the free radical nitric oxide”(註:這裡的自由基一氧化氮與藍色小藥丸中的一氧化氮是相同的,自由基對人體不全然是壞事,當人體遭病毒與細菌入侵時,巨噬細胞會藉由一氧化氮合成酶 iNOS 的催化來釋放自由基一氧化氮 NO,從而達到摧毀病菌或受感染細胞的目的。由於一氧化氮分子很小,能穿過血管內皮細胞的細胞膜,血管周圍的平滑肌細胞接收訊息後會舒張,造成血管擴張讓大量血液通過,從而達到erection的功能;但是過量的自由基則會傷害人體正常細胞,例如造成老化)

2. 發炎的過程與阿茲海默症的病理生理學具有關聯性”inflammatory processes are associated with the pathophysiology of Alzheimer’s disease”,論文作者的這個論述應該是引用這篇→《Neuroprotective effects of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs by direct scavenging of nitric oxide radicals

3. 持續使用 NSAIDs 或可抑制小膠質細胞的活化以延緩阿茲海默症的進展”it has been postulated that the sustained use of NSAIDs could retard Alzheimer’s disease progress by reducing inflammatory response occurred in microglia”(註:當中樞神經系統受損或發生神經退化性疾病,小膠質細胞會被活化,產生大量的前發炎因子,例如一氧化氮 NO、腫瘤壞死因子 TNF-α 等)

4. 研究顯示對於甲芬那酸能改善學習記憶障礙”our study demonstrates for the first time that mefenamic acid improves learning and memory impairment”

5. 甲芬那酸具有透過抑制活化的細胞色素c之釋放來達到神經保護的作用”mefenamic acid exerts a neuroprotective effect against Aβ1–42 treatment or Swe-APP or APP-CTs expression by inhibiting cytochrome c release from mitochondria and caspase-3 activation.”(註:細胞色素c和細胞程序性死亡有關,細胞程序性死亡是一種多細胞生物中的細胞按照預定程序集體自殺的行為,它包括細胞凋亡和自噬兩類)

6. 透過 Morris水迷宮 試驗確定,甲芬那酸具有改善學習記憶障礙,對於阿茲海默症具有治療潛力”mefenamic acid improves learning and memory impairment in an Aβ1–42 infused animal model, as determined by the Morris water maze test, suggesting that mefenamic acid has therapeutic potential for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease.”